الخميس، 21 سبتمبر 2017

بحث عن حيوان الباندا المهدد بالانقراض بالانجليزية


تعبير انجليزي عن بنده
برجراف عن الباندا
information about panda
معلومات عن الدب البني بالانجليزي
بحث عن الباندا المهدد بالانقراض بالانجليزية
معلومات عن الباندا المهدد بالانقراض
انشاء عن حيوان الاسد بالانجليزي
اسم دب الباندا بالانجليزي
why are pandas endangered
تقرير عن حيوان الباندا بالانجليزي
أريد موضوع تعبير عن حيوان باللغة الإنجليزية
موضوع تعبير عن حيوان باللغة الإنجليزية مهم اليوم my favorite animal
موضوع بالانجليزي عن الباندا
موضوع بالانجليزي مكتوب جاهز مميز مختصر قصير
للمدرسه او للجامعه او للبحث او للتعبير
الدب تعبير انجليزي باندا
برجراف عن الباندا بالانجليزي
information about panda
معلومات عن الدب البني بالانجليزي
انشاء عن حيوان الاسد بالانجليزي
اسباب انقراض الباندا بالانجليزية
اسم دب الباندا بالانجليزي
وصف حيوان بالانجليزية
بحث عن الباندا المهدد بالانقراض بالانجليزية
 information about panda
معلومات عن الباندا بالانجليزية
why are pandas endangered
giant panda food
giant panda habitat
panda animal en francais
facts about pandas
how long does panda live
مهدد بالانقراض
تعبير انجليزي عن حيوانك المفضل.
موضوع تعبير عن حيوان باللغة الإنجليزية

The giant panda (is a mammal usually classified in the ursid family (Ursidae), native to central China.

He lives only in central China, in mountainous areas covered by highland forests, such as Sichuan Province, parts of the Shaanxi Province, and the Tibet Autonomous Region, between 1,800 and 3,400 meters. This was a difficult region for Europeans before the mid-nineteenth century, which explains its late description in the West.

Morphologically, its Chinese name is "great cat-bear" (大熊猫, dà xióngmāo). In Tibetan its name is byi-the dom (cat-bear). The scientific name of the giant panda is Ailuropoda melanoleuca, melanoleuca meaning "black-white". Ailuropoda comes from the Greek αλουρος which means "cat" (of aiolos "which moves incessantly", and oura "tail") and pouspodos which means foot. The species Ailurus fulgens refers to the red panda. The etymology of Ailurus is the same.

Until 1901, the giant panda was known by the anglophones as the "party-colored bear". Thereafter it was linked to the red panda (Ailurus fulgens), of which it possesses common characteristics such as the "Sixth finger" or "False thumb", which it also shares with Simocyon batalleri, the European ancestor of 9 million years old, red panda, the size of a puma, found in Batallones-1, near Madrid4. Aururus fulgens belongs in reality to another family, the Ailuridae, in the Musteloidea superfamily, which also includes weasels, skunks and procyonids.

The giant panda is voluminous and massive: it weighs 80 to 125 kg, with an average of 105.5 kg; it measures 1.50 to 1.80 meters in length, with an average of 1.65 meters. As with most large mammals, females are generally smaller and less massive6.

The panda is black and white. It is predominantly white, with ears, legs and the outline of black eyes. Its thick coat protects it from the cold regions of high altitude where it lives.

The panda has six fingers including a "fake thumb" opposable to its five fingers. Phenomenon of evolutionary convergence, it comes from the transformation of a modified wrist bone (sesamoid bone). Stephen Jay Gould used this anatomical feature as an example of "evolutionary do-it-yourself" in his essay Le Pouce du panda7. This thumb is an adaptation linked to the diet (it serves in particular to catch the stems of bamboo of which it feeds in large quantity) or displacement8.

Herbivorous, it has powerful teeth, to grind the bamboos. It has 42 teeth.

His hearing and his sense of smell are very fine: he uses above all these two senses to orientate and to locate himself. His sight, on the other hand, is rather mediocre: less good than that of the cat or the man.

Exception

The Qinling Panda is a subspecies of panda residing only in the Qinling Mountains in China has an altitude of 100 to 3,000 m9. It is distinguished notably by its brown ventral fur.

Way of life

"The giant panda is confined to south-central China. Currently, it is found in parts of six isolated mountain ranges (Minshan, Qinling, Qionglai, Liangshan, Daxiangling and Xiaoxiangling), Gansu, Shaanxi and Sichuan provinces (approximately 75% Sichuan). Panda habitat encompasses about 30,000 square kilometers between 102 and 108.3 degrees east longitude and 28.2 to 34.1 degrees north latitude.

He lives in bamboo forests, a habitat that has been regressing for the benefit of agriculture, leaving it today only isolated islands scattered and isolated10.

Food

usually depicted peacefully eating bamboo rather than chasing, which adds to his image of innocence. Indeed, although classified as carnivore10, this animal feeds mainly on plants. Although it has been reported that eggs and insects are occasionally eaten, the diet consists of 99% plant life (almost only bamboo: up to 20 kg per day) 10, but may include punctually other plants, or even some meat (eg abandoned carcasses). Its origin as a carnivore explains that it has a digestive system capable of digesting meat13. Its microbiota would be closer to that of its carnivorous or omnivorous counterparts than herbivores14. It has few bacteria that are found in herbivores such as ruminants which break down cellulose, the main component of bamboo.

His false thumb allows him to pick and hold the bamboo stalks. He spent nearly 14 hours a day chewing them because of his low capacity to assimilate cellulose (deprived of caecum, like any other urside, he can digest only 17%). The shoots are swallowed whole, but it only keeps the heart and rejects the bark. The intestinal transit lasts about eight hours. Many Chinese bamboo forests are now man-made or have been cleared to become arable land. This is one of the reasons for the strong regression of the species, which no longer has its staple food.

The genome of the panda was sequenced by a Chinese team in 201013: its 21,000 genes contain in particular all those coding for the enzymes characteristic of a carnivorous diet (typical of the ursids) but that which codes for the receptor of the flavor of the panda, umami is mutated, which could render this receptor sensitive to meat flavor inactive, and thus partly explain why the panda has an essentially vegetarian diet, whereas it is, from the phylogenetic point of view, a carnivore

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