الخميس، 11 ديسمبر 2014

بحث انواع اسباب اخطار اضرار حلول التلوث بالانجليزية

Types of Pollution
Water pollution: When some foreign particle, organic, inorganic or biological impurities are added to the water so that it becomes unfit for use is known as water pollution.
Major Water pollutants: Point Sources: Sewerage system and industrial effluents etc.
Diffused sources: agriculture. Mining and construction etc. 
Soil pollution: When the productivity of the soil reduces due to the presence of pollutants in it is known as soil pollution. Man has polluted the soil by the excess use of pesticides.
Major soil pollutants: Pesticides, fungicides and herbicides
Noise pollution: An unwanted and unpleasant sound is known as Noise pollution. Noise pollution affects human being not the physical environment. It reduces the efficiency of the human being.
Major Sources: Industries, Transport vehicles, public address systems etc. 
Marine pollution: Human being has polluted the oceans by adding the oil and waste disposal in it. The main causes of marine pollution are shore based industries, off-shore drilling, wrecked oil tankers and transport activities. Also the waste discharged into the rivers that flows to the ocean is the main reason of marine pollution. Marine pollution has adversely affected the sea life.
Major sources: Transport, oil tankers and industries.
Thermal pollution: It is an increase in the water temperature due to industrial operations (steel industries and power plants). Many industries are using water as a coolant. Due to which the temperature of the water rises. This hot water is then discharged into the environment causing a warming of surface water. This can result in a permanent increase in water temperature. It can also affect the aquatic system.
Causes of pollution
Air pollution comes from both natural and human-made (anthropogenic) sources. However, globally human-made pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation.[11]
Motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution.[12][13][14] China, United States, Russia, India[15] Mexico, and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions. Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries,[16] petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc.), PVC factories, metals production factories, plastics factories, and other heavy industry. Agricultural air pollution comes from contemporary practices which include clear felling and burning of natural vegetation as well as spraying of pesticides and herbicides[17]
About 400 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are generated each year.[18] The United States alone produces about 250 million metric tons.[19] Americans constitute less than 5% of the world's population, but produce roughly 25% of the world’s CO
2,[20] and generate approximately 30% of world’s waste.[21][22] In 2007, China has overtaken the United States as the world's biggest producer of CO
2,[23] while still far behind based on per capita pollution - ranked 78th among the world's nations.[24]

DANGER of Pollution
1. Environment Degradation : Environment is the first casualty for increase in pollution weather in air or water. The increase in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere leads to smog which can restrict sunlight from reaching the earth. Thus, preventing plants in the process of photosynthesis. Gases like Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide can cause acid rain. Water pollution in terms of Oil spill may lead to death of several wildlife species.
2. Human Health : The decrease in quality of air leads to several respiratory problems including asthma or lung cancer. Chest pain, congestion, throat inflammation, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease are some of diseases  that can be causes by air pollution. Water pollution occurs due to contamination of water and may pose skin related problems including skin irritations and rashes. Similarly, Noise pollution leads to hearing loss, stress and sleep disturbance.
 3-Global Warming :  The emission of greenhouse gases particularly CO2 is leading to global warming. Every other day new industries are being set up, new vehicles come on roads and trees are cut to make way for new homes. All of them, in direct or indirect way lead to increase in CO2 in the environment. The increase in CO2 leads to melting of polar ice caps which increases the sea level and pose danger for the people living near coastal areas.
4. Ozone Layer Depletion: Ozone layer is the thin shield high up in the sky that stops ultra violet rays from reaching the earth. As a result of human activities, chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), were released int to the atmosphere which contributed to the depletion of ozone layer.
5. Infertile Land : Due to constant use of insecticides and pesticides, the soil may become infertile. Plants may not be able to grow properly. Various forms of chemicals produced from industrial waste is released into the flowing water which also affects the quality of soil.
SOLUTION OF Pollution
1. Use public mode of transportation: Encourage people to use more and more public modes of transportation to reduce pollution. Also, try to make use of car pooling. If you and your colleagues come from the same locality and have same timings you can explore this option to save energy and money.
2. Conserve energy: Switch off fans and lights when you are going out. Large amount of fossil fuels are burnt to produce electricity. You can save the environment from degradation by reducing the amount of fossil fuels to be burned.
3. Understand the concept of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle: Do not throw away items that are of no use to you. In-fact reuse them for some other purpose. For e.g. you can use old jars to store cereals or pulses.
4. Emphasis on clean energy resources: Clean energy technologies like solar, wind and geothermal are on high these days. Governments of various countries have been providing grants to consumers who are interested in installing solar panels for their home. This will go a long way to curb air pollution.
5. Use energy efficient devices: CFL lights consume less electricity as against their counterparts. They live longer, consume less electricity, lower electricity bills and also help you to reduce pollution by consuming less energy.

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