السبت، 4 نوفمبر 2017

موضوع عن الاقتصاد الصناعة في لبنان بالانجليزي

تعبير  معلومات تقرير برجراف فقرة برزنتيشن بحث موضوع ملخص جاهز عن  تعبير بالانجليزي عن. تقرير جاهز عن. عندي بحث بالانجليزي  موضوع عن لبنان بالانجليزي
information about lebanon
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اقتصاد لبنان بالانجليزي الوضع الاقتصادي في لبنان 2017 2018
الازمة الاقتصادية في لبنان
الاقتصاد اللبناني  التجارة اللبنانية مميزات الاقتصاد اللبناني
الصناعة لبنان بالانجليزي لبنان الوجهات موضوع عن لبنان وجماله
معلومات عن لبنان بالانجليزي لبنان نقاط الاهتمام
السياحة في لبنان موضوع تعبير عن لبنان بالانجليزي
information about lebanon

Presentation

Economic conditions

After reaching record levels between 2007 and 2010 (8% on average), stimulated by the post-civil war reconstruction program, Lebanon's economic growth has slowed down considerably since 2011, as a result of internal political tensions and the Syrian conflict. . The sectors that were driving growth (financial services, real estate, tourism, wholesale trade) were hit hard. In 2016, growth did not exceed 1%. An improvement could occur in 2017 following the election of President Michel Aoun, but a worsening of conflicts could instead weaken the economy more.

On 31 October 2016, after more than two and a half years of institutional vacuum, the deputies elected Aoun, a former career soldier and close to Hezbollah, president. A new government was set up by Saad Hariri, who was already prime minister from 2009 to 2011. However, he has very little budgetary room for maneuver. Indeed, the public debt, which exceeded 140% of GDP in 2016, continues to increase, and the budget deficit is close to 12% of GDP. The appreciation of the US dollar has led to an increase in debt service and a worsening of the public accounts imbalance. The Lebanese banking system is highly exposed to public debt, which increases the systemic risk induced by sovereign default. The Lebanese central bank has also allocated a billion dollars to support bank credit to stimulate activity. Despite US sanctions against Hezbollah (and their alleged financial backing), the banking sector has been resilient. The challenges posed to the country remain numerous. The massive influx of Syrian refugees (30% of the country's population) has upset the demographic balance, the labor market, and put pressure on the cost of rent, infrastructure and the provision of public services (water and electricity) . The "waste crisis" that began in 2015 was only partially reversed with the adoption of a controversial plan to build sanitary landfills on the coast.

Unemployment has exploded as a result of the influx of Syrian refugees, who compete with the Lebanese in the informal sector and are now at risk of affecting more than one in four people in the country. More than 70% of refugees live below the poverty line. Social inequalities are important.

Main sectors of activity

Services dominate Lebanon's economy, with the sector accounting for nearly 80 percent of the country's GDP and employing nearly three-quarters of the labor force. The banking sector is the mainstay of the Lebanese economy. The sustained and lucrative banking activity does not, however, constitute a real support for private activity since the majority of bank liquidity is used to finance the public debt. Tourism contributes globally to around 25% of GDP and generates about a quarter of jobs. The sector was booming until the country saw a drop in attendance since 2011 due to instability in the Middle East. Lebanon is also benefiting from a booming real estate sector, which has benefited from the bursting of Dubai's speculative bubble. In addition to strong national demand, driven by that of Lebanese expatriates, demand from Arab countries is also substantial.
The industry accounts for more than 15% of GDP and employs more than 20% of assets. It is dominated by the manufacture of agri-food, metal, mineral, furniture and other manufactured products.
Lebanon has fertile land, however the agricultural sector is poorly developed and participates only at less than 5.5% of GDP and employs about 5% of assets. Offshore deposits of natural gas have recently been discovered.
Trade

Lebanon has strengthened its international trade openness by signing an association agreement with the EU, working to join the WTO and passing a free trade agreement with the Gulf Cooperation Council ( GCC) in May 2004. Trade accounts for more than 120% of Lebanon's GDP (2015).
Its main export partners are Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, South Africa, Iraq and Syria. Mainly exported goods are ores (gold), petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, textiles, tobacco, pearls and precious stones, electrical and electronic equipment, salt, sulfur and machinery. Its main import partners are the EU (notably Italy, France, Germany and Greece), China, the United States and Russia. Lebanon imports mainly mineral fuels, oil, vehicles, machinery, pearls and precious stones, as well as electrical and electronic equipment.

Lebanon's trade balance is structurally deficit, despite a surplus of services. Due to the Syrian conflict that penalizes Lebanese exports and increased transport and insurance costs, the deficit is growing. In 2016, Lebanon's trade balance deteriorated further than in 2015, with the deficit rising by 4.1% to $ 15.7 billion. Imports rose 3.5% while exports increased only slightly (+ 0.8%) and even fell in volume. Exports are weakened by the loss of competitiveness of the Lebanese pound.

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